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Pirkei Avot 6:1: Love and Joy

Rabbi Meir would say: Whoever studies Torah for Torah's sake alone, merits many things; not only that, but [the creation of] the entire world is worthwhile for him alone. He is called friend, beloved, lover of G‑d, lover of humanity, rejoicer of God, rejoicer of humanity. (Pirkei Avot 6:1)

The Lubavitcher Rebbe explains: "Lover of humanity" refers to the love of Israel, as stated in "You shall love your neighbor as yourself, this is a great principle in the Torah." "Rejoicer of humanity" refers to the unity of Israel. Unity and love are closely related— אחד = אהבה (‘one’ equals ‘love’) — but they differ. Love resides in the heart, while joy spreads through all the limbs (to the point that the feet dance with joy). Just as joy creates unity in every part of a person, it makes it possible to unite with others. In the mind: joy is associated with the attribute of understanding ("The mother of the sons is joyous"), and unity is associated with knowledge; unification is the inner dimension of knowledge. It is said, "If there is no knowledge, there is no understanding; if there is no understanding, there is no knowledge," linking joy and unity together.

There is a virtue in love and a virtue in unity, and both should be emphasized. With love alone, there is still a sense of separation, hence the need for unity. However, unity alone is not sufficient. One might think, for example, that just as he himself is content with little, so too is his friend (since they are one). Hence,  love, which focuses fully on the other and is sensitive to his needs, is necessary.

In continuation of the Rebbe's words, the duality of "loving God… delighting God" should be similarly interpreted. There is the love of God, "And you shall love God your God," and there is unity with God, "Hear, O Israel: God is our God, God is one." The difference is that in the unity of Israel one might feel that everything is included in myself (my friend is literally a part of me), whereas in the unity with God, 'I' am included in 'Him', since "there is none besides Him." Here too, one should not be satisfied with just love or just unity. Above (and before) the love of God is the recognition that all is nullified in the unity of God, "God is one." However, one should not remain in a unity that nullifies all relation, since "the Holy One, blessed be He, desired to have a dwelling in the lower worlds," in man as a reality unto itself, the man who loves God.

The first six elements associated with a person who studies Torah for its own sake, (which include all that follows) are: friend, beloved, one who loves God, one who loves people, one who brings joy to God, one who brings joy to people. These equal 4320, which is 5 times " עבדו את הוי' בשמחה (“Serve God with joy"). As is known, "Serve God with joy" equals the full spelling of joy (שמחה): Shin-Mem-Chet-Hei, which is four times יראה  (fear). From "Serve God with fear" we merit "Serve God with joy", the ultimate purpose of serving God.

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